Although Pan was diligent and talented, we can deduce from socio-cultural studies in gender, race and migration12 that she would have encountered difficulty in gaining recognition within predominantly white and male French art circles. Thames and Hudson. Mittler, Barbara. Woman by the Window, Guan Zilan and Qiu Ti. Anhui Provincial Museum.
The recent sensation over the forgotten artist in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan is ironic in view of the lonely, frugal life Pan led as an independent artist before she died in her shabby apartment in Paris in
Kendra Full Cups. The combination of the black servant and the superior white nude is also a favourite subject of the Orientalist erotica in nineteenth-century Europe. Her art evolved within the flux of transformations where conflicting dichotomies of East and West, tradition and modernity, male chauvinism and emerging feminism co-existed.